The National Baseball
Hall of Fame & Museum is located in Cooperstown, New York. It was created
in 1935 to celebrate baseball’s 100th anniversary.
Pittsburgh and Boston played the first World Series in
1903. Boston won the nine-game series 5-3.
Baseballs are stitched by hand with two straight needles –
108 stitches each!
Years ago, American League baseballs were stitched with red
and blue thread and the National League baseballs were stitched with red
and black thread.
Some say that the expression “southpaw” for lefties may
have originated with baseball because a left-handed pitcher would end up
facing south as he finished throwing the ball.
Baltimore Oriole’s shortstop Cal Ripken, Jr. didn’t miss a
game in 16 years – he played in 2,632 games from 1982 to 1998.
If you are interested in
the more serious aspects of baseball,
a great reference book is The Physics of Baseball by Robert K.
A team's best starting pitcher.ALLEY
The section of the outfield between
the outfielders. Also called the gap.
AROUND THE HORN
A double play going from third base
to second base to first base.
Help from a fielder in putting an
offensive player out. A fielder is credited with an assist when he throws
a baserunner or hitter out at a base.
The offensive team’s turn to bat the
ball and score. Each player takes a turn at bat until three outs are made.
Each Batter’s opportunity at the plate is scored as an "at bat" for him
A pitch that appears to be out of the
strike zone, but then breaks over the plate.
BALTIMORE CHOP A ground ball
that hits in front of home plate (or off of it) and takes a large hop over
the infielder's head.
BATTERY Term referring to
the pitcher and catcher combination.
BOX SCORE The progression of the game as written in a series of
boxes indicating hits, runs, errors and player substitutions of each
BREAKING BALL An off-speed
pitch that curves.
When the crowd boos.
A pitch that nearly hits the batter.
CALLED GAME A game suspended
or ended by the umpire.
CAN OF CORN
An easy catch by the fielder.
When a batter is called out on
The team in last place is considered
“in the cellar”
A slow-pitch thrown with the exact arm action as a fastball, designed to
disrupt the timing of the hitter.
A partial swing. If the swing has gone more than halfway around, the
umpire can rule it a full swing, or strike.
A good fastball.
A pitch that is high and inside.
An outstanding catch by a fielder.
Player who hits fourth in the batting order.
Relief pitcher who specializes in pitching the last few outs of a game.
Statistical credit to a starting pitcher for pitching the entire game.
The number of called balls and strikes on a hitter.
Pitch that moves down, across, or down and across, depending upon the
rotation of the ball.
A fastball with a late break on it.
When a batter hits a single, double,
triple and homerun in the same game.
Player who bats in the pitcher’s spot in the line-up. The DH does not have
a fielding position.
Circular shaped weight that slides over the bat. The weight is used when a
player is loosening up in the on deck circle.
A hit that enables a batter to reach second base.
Two games played back to back by the same teams.
Any defensive play that results in two base runners being called out.
A run scored on a hit, walk or steal, without benefit from a defensive
error on the play.
Defensive mistake that allows a batter to stay at the plate or reach first
base, or that advances a base runner.
A straight pitch thrown by the pitcher as hard as possible.
Part of the playing field within, and including the first base and third
base lines, from home base to the bottom of the playing field fence and
perpendicular upwards. All foul lines are in the fair territory.
Term used when a fielder can chose
among base runners or throw or tag out.
A team's closer.
Batted ball that goes high in the air in flights.
An out created when a runner is forced to advance because there is another
runner behind them, although they will be thrown or tagged out. The
defensive player needs only to touch the base being approached by the
runner with the ball in hand to record the out.
A pitch thrown by placing the ball between the first two fingers, usually
resulting in a sinking ball.
A ball that lands outside the first or third base foul lines.
Lines extending from home plate through 1st and 3rd base to the outfield
fence and perpendicularly upwards. These lines are considered in play.
Part of the playing field outside the first and third base lines extended
to the fence and perpendicularly upwards.
A ball hit to a fielder during
The section of the outfield between
the outfielders. Also called alley.
A ball hit for a homerun.
A home run that is hit with a runner on every base. This hit scores 4
Signal from the coach to hit the next good pitch, or a signal to a base
runner that gives the runner the authority to decide when to attempt a
A good fastball.
HIT AND RUN
Play-action situation in which the batter must swing at the pitch while
the base runner attempts to steal the base.
A ball hit out of the playing field in fair territory. A home run scores
the batter and any base runners.
Four balls thrown on purpose to a batter advancing the hitter to first
base. Generally, executed when 1st base is empty to set-up a force play.
A pitch thrown by gripping one of the seams on a ball with fingernails
and/or knuckles of the forefinger and middle finger with the thumb another
fingers underneath the ball. The ball is pushed out of the hand by the two
fingers to keep the ball from rotating, causing the ball to move in an
A ball hit in the air at a low projectory directly to a fielder or through
A team’s batting order and fielding positions
A batting average of around .200.
Named after Pirate shortstop Mario Mendoza.
Hill the pitcher stands on while pitching.
A game in which a pitcher does not allow the opposing team to reach a base
via a safe hit.
A term used to refer to the next batter up in the inning. This person
stands in a designated circular area and warms up before batting.
OUT IN ORDER
Retiring the first 3 batters in an inning.
Area between the back edge of the infield and home run fence.
A fielder who occupies a position in the outfield, which is the playing
field most distance from home base.
A pitched ball missed by the catcher, allowing a runner to advance.
A game in which a pitcher does not allow any batter of the opposing team
to reach base.
An attempt by the pitcher to get a base runner out by throwing to the base
from the stretch position.
A hitter who substitutes in the line-up for a starting player. The
original batter can’t return to the game, so the pinch hitter or a third
person takes over the defensive position as well.
A player entering the game to run for someone already on base.
When a pitch is thrown wide of the strike zone on purpose. A catcher will
signal for a pitchout if they think that a runner is trying to steal.
The order in which the starting pitchers take turns starting games,
usually with three or four days rest between starts.
A batter that generally hits to the same side of the field that he bats.
(eg, righthanded pull hitter hits to the left side of the field).
In scoring, a fielder is credited with a putout if he receives the ball to
put out a baserunner or a hitter.
The pitcher replacing the starting pitcher. The relief pitcher can win,
lose, save, or not be involved in the game’s final score.
A the pitching plate on the mound. The pitcher must have one foot
connected to the plate while pitching to the batter. The rubber is located
60’ 6" (19.5 meters) from home plate.
Score obtained when a base runner safely crosses home plate.
A played used by fielders to tag out a runner caught between bases.
RUN BATTER IN (RBI)
Statistics which shows how often a player has made it possible for his/her
team mates to score while at bat. A player who has 30 RBI’s has caused 30
runs to be score. A batter is not credited with an RBI if he hits into a
double play or if the run is scored because of an error.
An offensive player who is advancing toward, touching, or returning to any
A bunt designed to advance a runner although the batter will be thrown
Fly ball out that scores a runner from third base.
A relief pitcher can be credited with a save if they can keep the team’s
lead while the opponent’s tying or winning runs are on base, or if they
pitch 3 or more innings without allowing the opponents to tie the game.
Runner on second or third base.
Defensive player positioned between second and third bases.
A game in which one team doesn’t score any runs.
A fast pitch that breaks downward as it reaches.
A pitcher that appears to the batter as a fastball until it reaches the
plate, then breaks sharply on a level plane. The ball is held similarly to
the curveball, but the wrist is kept straight, like a fastball, and broken
Illegal pitch which a foreign substance (most commonly spit or grease) is
applied to the ball causing it to react in an unpredictable manner.
The pitcher who beings the game and pitches until he wins the game or is
replaced by a relief pitcher.
Attempting to advance a base between pitches without the batter hitting
the ball or getting a base on balls.
Successfully advancing a base between
pitches without the batter hitting the ball or getting a base on balls.
The area over home plate between the batter’s armpits and knees when the
batter is positioned to swing. Any pitch that is delivered through this
area is called a strike.
SUICIDE SQUEEZE PLAY
A play in which a runner on third breaks toward home on the pitch and the
batter’s responsibility is to bunt the ball allowing the runner to score.
Player who is able to bat left-handed or right-handed. A switch-hitter
will bat from the opposite side in which the pitchers throws.
1. An action runners must perform before they can advance on a fly ball.
Runners must touch the base they occupy after the ball is caught before
they can try to advance. Runners can leave their base before a ball it
hit, but must return and touch the base if the ball is caught. 2. An
action executed when a defensive player touches a runner with the ball in
an attempt to get them out.
A bloop hit that drops between the
infielder and outfielder.
A defensive play that records 3 outs.
A curve ball
A player who fills in in many
A hitters power zone.
A strike out.
A pitch so far from the strike zone that the catcher cannot catch or block
it, permitting any base runner to advance a base.
A curve ball.